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The King Over the Water: A Complete History of the Jacobites

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By the Peace of Utrecht, France and Spain switched their recognition to the Hanoverian succession in 1713, [19] although France subsequently recognised James as "King of Scotland" during the 1745 rising. After his death in 1625, this was continued by his son Charles I, who lacked his political sensitivity; by the late 1630s, instituting Personal Rule in 1629, enforcing Laudian reforms on the Church of England, and ruling without Parliament led to a political crisis. His Scottish deposition was not linked to his flight on 11 December 1688, but to his misdemeanours generally. Sophia died a few months before Anne, and Sophia's son, George I, consequently acceded to the British throne on Anne's death in 1714.

During the Seven Years' War in 1759, Charles met Choiseul, then Chief minister of France to discuss another invasion, but Choiseul dismissed him as "incapacitated by drink". Desmond Seward has been shortlisted for a Military History Matters Book of the Year Award for The King Over The Water. In 1822 he arranged a pageantry of reinvented Scottish traditions for the visit of King George IV to Scotland.For most of the period from 1690 to 1714, Parliament was either controlled by the Tories, or evenly split with the Whigs; when George I succeeded Anne, most hoped to reconcile with the new regime. In addition to the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland and the Jacobite rising of 1689 in Scotland, there were serious revolts in 1715, 1719 and 1745; abortive French-backed invasion attempts in 1708 and 1744; and several unsuccessful plots. Most of Ireland was still controlled by Tyrconnell, where James landed on 12 March 1689 with 6,000 French troops.

Quaker leader William Penn was a prominent non-conformist supporter of James, although this was based on their personal relationship and did not survive his deposition. Despite Henry's urgings, Clement XIII refused to recognise his brother as Charles III; Charles died of a stroke in Rome in January 1788, a disappointed and embittered man.This almost certainly understates their numbers, for many sympathisers remained within the Church of England, but Non Jurors were disproportionately represented in Jacobite risings and riots, and provided many "martyrs".

Others argue riots were common in 18th-century urban areas and see them as a "series of ritualised clashes". However, there remains a small number of modern supporters who believe in the restoration of the Jacobite succession to the throne. The next heir-in-line would be her eldest son Prince Joseph Wenzel of Liechtenstein (born 1995) of the House of Liechtenstein. In 1690, over 200 clergy lost their positions, mostly in Aberdeenshire and Banffshire, a strongly Episcopalian area since the 1620s.This led to internecine warfare in Scotland, during which Cromwell assisted the ‘kirk’ party, led by Archibald Campbell, marquess of Argyll, to seize power and disinvite Charles. Clark, suggest that Jacobitism can instead be regarded as part of a "deep vein of social and political conservatism running throughout British history", arguing that the Whig settlement was not as stable as has been depicted. While Jacobite agents continued in their attempts to recruit the disaffected, the most committed Jacobites were often linked by relatively small family networks, particularly in Scotland; Jacobite activities in areas like Perthshire and Aberdeenshire centred on a limited number of influential families heavily involved in 1715 and 1745. His younger brother, Henry, Cardinal of York, died in 1807 and the Royal House of Stuart thereby became extinct.

The Earl of Mar, who led the 1715 rising, observed "Jacobitisme, which they used to brand the Tories with, is now I presum out of doors". The night before he was due to be executed, his wife, visiting him in the Tower, ‘framed his face with false curls, rouged and powdered it, dressed him in a cloak and hood, and then led him out, pretending he was her maid’. This extraordinary proposal was ratified in March, and in May Charles was asked to lead an invasion of England from Scotland. A Convention of the Scottish Estates took a different approach, and declared that James, by his wrongdoing, had forfeited the crown. After 1691, measures passed by the 1689 Parliament were annulled, penal laws barred Catholics from public life, while the Act of Attainder was used to justify further land confiscations.However, his refusal to renounce his claim to be 'Henry IX' prevented a full reconciliation with the House of Hanover. Jacobitism was perceived by contemporaries to be a significant military and political threat, [16] with invasions and uprisings in support of the exiled Stuarts occurring in 1689, 1715, 1719 and 1745.

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